Risk Factors

The following important factors, and those important factors described in other reports we submit to or file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), could affect our actual results and could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf. In particular, as we are a non-U.S. company, there are risks associated with investing in our ADSs that are not typical for investments in the shares of U.S. companies. Prior to making an investment decision, you should carefully consider all of the information contained in this document, including the following risk factors.

Risk Factors Relating to our Company

LATAM does not control the voting shares or board of directors of TAM

Due to Brazilian law restrictions on foreign ownership of Brazilian airlines, LATAM does not control the voting shares or board of directors of TAM. As of January 31, 2017, the ownership structure of TAM is as follows:

  • Holdco I owns 100% of the TAM common shares previously outstanding;
  • the Amaro family (the “Amaro Group”) own approximately 51% of the outstanding Holdco I voting shares through TEP Chile (a Chilean entity wholly owned by the TAM Controlling Shareholders) and LAN owns the remainder of the voting shares;
  • LATAM owns 100% of the outstanding Holdco I non-voting shares, entitling it to substantially all of the economic rights in respect of the TAM common shares held by Holdco I; and
  • LATAM owns 100% of the TAM preferred shares previously outstanding.

As a result of this ownership structure:

  • The Amaro Group Controlling Shareholders retain voting and board control of TAM and each subsidiary of TAM; and
  • LATAM is entitled to substantially all of the economic rights in TAM.

LATAM Airlines Group and TEP Chile and other parties have entered into shareholders’ agreements that establish agreements and restrictions relating to corporate governance with respect to TAM. Certain specified actions require supermajority approval, which in turn means they require the prior approval of both LATAM and TEP Chile. Examples of actions requiring supermajority approval by the board of directors of Holdco I or TAM include, among others, entering into acquisitions or business collaborations, amending or approving budgets, business plans, financial statements and accounting policies, incurring indebtedness, encumbering assets, entering into certain agreements, making certain investments, modifying rights or claims, entering into settlements, appointing executives, creating security interests, issuing, redeeming or repurchasing securities and voting on matters as a shareholder of affiliates of TAM. Actions requiring supermajority shareholder approval of Holdco I or TAM include, among others, certain changes to the by-laws of Holdco I, TAM or TAM’s affiliates or any dissolution/liquidation, corporate reorganization, payment of dividends, issuance of securities, disposal or encumbrance of certain assets, creation of security interests or entering into guarantees and agreements with related parties. For more information on the shareholders’ agreements, see “Item 7. Controlling Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Shareholders’ Agreements.”

Our assets include a significant amount of goodwill.   

Our assets included US$2,710.4 million of goodwill as of December 31, 2016, US$2,582.5 million of which results from the combination of LAN and TAM. Under IFRS, goodwill is subject to an annual impairment test and may be required to be tested more frequently if events or circumstances indicate a potential impairment. In 2016, mainly as a result of the appreciation of the Brazilian real against the U.S. dollar, the value of our goodwill increased by 18.8% as compared with 2015. Any impairment could result in the recognition of a significant charge to earnings in our statement of income, which could materially and adversely impact our consolidated results for the period in which the impairment occurs.

A failure to successfully implement our strategy or a failure adjusting the strategy to the current economic situation would harm our business and the market value of our ADSs and common shares.

We have developed a strategic plan with the goal of becoming one of the best airlines in the world and renewing our commitment to sustained profitability and superior returns to shareholders. Our strategy requires us to identify value propositions that are attractive to our clients, to find efficiencies in our daily operations, and to transform ourselves into a stronger and more risk-resilient company. A tenet of our strategic plan is the adoption of a new travel model for domestic services in the six countries where we have domestic operations to address the changing dynamics of customers and the industry, and to increase our competitiveness. The new travel model is based on a continued reduction in air fares that makes air travel accessible to a wider audience, and in particular to those wish to fly more frequently. This model requires continued cost reduction efforts, and in order to achieve this the Company is implementing a series of initiatives to reduce cost per ASK in all its domestic operations.

Difficulties in implementing our strategy may adversely affect our business, results of operation and the market value of our ADSs and common shares.

A failure to successfully transfer the value proposition of the LAN and TAM brands to a new single brand, may adversely affect our business and the market value of our ADSs and common shares.

Following the combination in 2012, LAN and TAM continued to operate with their original brands. During 2016, we began the transition of LAN and TAM into a single brand. LAN and TAM had different value propositions, and there can be no assurances that we will be able to fully transfer the value of the original LAN and TAM brands to our new single brand “LATAM”. Difficulties in implementing our single brand may prevent us from consolidating as a customer preferred carrier and may adversely affect our business and results of operations and the market value of our ADSs and common shares.

It may take time to combine the frequent flyer programs of LAN and TAM.

We have integrated the separate frequent flyer programs of LAN and TAM so that passengers can use frequent flyer miles earned with either LAN or TAM interchangeably. During 2016, LAN and TAM announced their revamped frequent flyer programs, which have new names: LATAM Pass and LATAM Fidelidade, respectively. The change is part of the process of consolidating the airline group’s new brand identity (LATAM) and the evolution of the programs, which enhances existing benefits and introduces new benefits for program members. However, there is no guarantee that full integration of the two plans will be completed in the near term or at all. Even if the integration occurs, the successful integration of these programs will involve some time and expense. Moreover, during 2016, LATAM Pass and LATAM Fidelidade approved changes in their mileage earning policy which may impact the attractiveness of the programs to passengers. Until we effectively combine these programs, passengers may prefer frequent flyer programs offered by other airlines, which may adversely affect our business.

Our financial results are exposed to foreign currency fluctuations.

We prepare and present our consolidated financial statements in U.S. dollars. LATAM and its affiliates operate in numerous countries and face the risk of variation in foreign currency exchange rates against the U.S. dollar or between the currencies of these various countries. Changes in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the currencies in the countries in which we operate could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.. If the value of the Brazilian real, Chilean peso or other currencies in which revenues are denominated declines against the U.S. dollar, our results of operations and financial condition will be affected. The exchange rate of the Chilean peso, Brazilian real and other currencies against the U.S. dollar may fluctuate significantly in the future.

Changes in Chilean, Brazilian and other governmental economic policies affecting foreign exchange rates could also adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and the return to our shareholders on their common shares or ADSs.

We depend on strategic alliances or commercial relationships in many of the countries in which we operate, and our business may suffer if any of our strategic alliances or commercial relationships terminates.

We maintain a number of alliances and other commercial relationships in many of the jurisdictions in which LATAM and its affiliates operate. These alliances or commercial relationships allow us to enhance our network and, in some cases, to offer our customers services that we could not otherwise offer. If any of our strategic alliances or commercial relationships, deteriorates, or any of these agreements are terminated, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our business and results of operations may suffer if we fail to obtain and maintain routes, suitable airport access, slots and other operating permits.

Our business depends upon our access to key routes and airports. Bilateral aviation agreements between countries, open skies laws and local aviation approvals frequently involve political and other considerations outside of our control. Our operations could be constrained by any delay or inability to gain access to key routes or airports, including:

  • limitations on our ability to process more passengers;
  • the imposition of flight capacity restrictions;
  • the inability to secure or maintain route rights in local markets or under bilateral agreements; or
  • the inability to maintain our existing slots and obtain additional slots.

We operate numerous international routes, subject to bilateral agreements, and also internal flights within Chile, Peru, Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia and other countries, subject to local route and airport access approvals. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Regulation.”

There can be no assurance that existing bilateral agreements with the countries in which our companies are based and permits from foreign governments will continue. A modification, suspension or revocation of one or more bilateral agreements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The suspension of our permission to operate in certain airports, destinations or slots, or the imposition of other sanctions could also have a material adverse effect. A change in the administration of current laws and regulations or the adoption of new laws and regulations in any of the countries in which we operate that restrict our route, airport or other access may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

A significant portion of our cargo revenue comes from relatively few product types and may be impacted by events affecting their production, trade or demand.

Our cargo demand, especially from Latin American exporters, is concentrated in a small number of product categories, such as exports of fish, sea products and fruits from Chile, and asparagus from Peru, and exports of fresh flowers from Ecuador and Colombia. Events that adversely affect the production, trade or demand for these goods may adversely affect the volume of goods that we transport and may have a significant impact on our results of operations. Some of our cargo products are sensitive to foreign exchange rates and, therefore, traffic volumes could be impacted by the appreciation or depreciation of local currencies.

Our operations are subject to fluctuations in the supply and cost of jet fuel, which could adversely impact our business. 

Higher jet fuel prices could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Jet fuel costs have historically accounted for a significant amount of our operating expenses, and accounted for 23.0% of our operating expenses in 2016. Both the cost and availability of fuel are subject to many economic and political factors and events that we can neither control nor predict. We have entered into fuel hedging arrangements, but there can be no assurance that such arrangements will be adequate to protect us from an increase in fuel prices in the near future or in the long term. Also, while these hedging arrangements are designed to limit the effect of an increase in fuel prices, our hedging methods may also limit our ability to take advantage of any decrease in fuel prices, as was the case in 2015 and, to a lesser extent, in 2016. Although we have implemented measures to pass a portion of incremental fuel costs to our customers, our ability to lessen the impact of any increase in fuel costs using these types of mechanisms may be limited.

We rely on maintaining a high aircraft utilization rate to increase our revenues and absorb our fixed costs, which makes us especially vulnerable to delays.

A key element of our strategy is to maintain a high daily aircraft utilization rate, which measures the number of flight hours we use our aircraft per day. High daily aircraft utilization allows us to maximize the amount of revenue we generate from our aircraft and absorb the fixed costs associated with our fleet and is achieved, in part, by reducing turnaround times at airports and developing schedules that enable us to increase the average hours flown per day. Our rate of aircraft utilization could be adversely affected by a number of different factors that are beyond our control, including air traffic and airport congestion, adverse weather conditions, unanticipated maintenance and delays by third-party service providers relating to matters such as fueling and ground handling. If an aircraft falls behind schedule, the resulting delays could cause a disruption in our operating performance.

We fly and depend upon Airbus and Boeing aircraft, and our business could suffer if we do not receive timely deliveries of aircraft, if aircraft from these companies becomes unavailable or if the public negatively perceives our aircraft.

As our fleet has grown, our reliance on Airbus and Boeing has also grown. As of December 31, 2016, LATAM Airlines Group has a fleet of 250 Airbus and 82 Boeing aircraft. Risks relating to Airbus and Boeing include:

  • our failure or inability to obtain Airbus or Boeing aircraft, parts or related support services on a timely basis because of high demand or other factors;
  • the interruption of fleet service as a result of unscheduled or unanticipated maintenance requirements for these aircraft;
  • the issuance by the Chilean or other aviation authorities of other directives restricting or prohibiting the use of our Airbus or Boeing aircraft, or requiring time-consuming inspections and maintenance;
  • adverse public perception of a manufacturer as a result of an accident or other negative publicity; or
  • delays between the time we realize the need for new aircraft and the time it takes us to arrange for Airbus and Boeing or for a third-party provider to deliver this aircraft.

The occurrence of any one or more of these factors could restrict our ability to use aircraft to generate profits, respond to increased demands, or could otherwise limit our operations and adversely affect our business.

If we are unable to incorporate leased aircraft into our fleet at acceptable rates and terms in the future, our business could be adversely affected.

A large portion of our aircraft fleet is subject to long-term operating leases. Our operating leases typically run from three to 12 years from the date of delivery. We may face more competition for, or a limited supply of, leased aircraft, making it difficult for us to negotiate on competitive terms upon expiration of our current operating leases or to lease additional capacity required for our targeted level of operations. If we are forced to pay higher lease rates in the future to maintain our capacity and the number of aircraft in our fleet, our profitability could be adversely affected.

Our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to service our debt or meet our future financing requirements.

We have a high degree of debt and payment obligations under our aircraft operating leases and financial debt arrangements. We require significant amounts of financing to meet our aircraft capital requirements and may require additional financing to fund our other business needs. We cannot guarantee that we will have access to or be able to arrange for financing in the future on favorable terms. Following the combination of LAN and TAM, Fitch Ratings Inc. and Standard and Poor’s downgraded LATAM Airlines Group S.A.’s credit rating to levels that are below investment grade. Any further securities rating agencies downgrades could increase our financing costs. Higher financing costs could affect our ability to expand or renew our fleet, which in turn could adversely affect our business.

In addition, the majority of our property and equipment is subject to liens securing our indebtedness. In the event that we fail to make payments on secured indebtedness, creditors’ enforcement of liens could limit or end our ability to use the affected property and equipment to fulfill our operational needs and thus generate revenue.

Moreover, external conditions in the financial and credit markets may limit the availability of funding at particular times or increase its costs, which could adversely affect our profitability, our competitive position and result in lower net interest margins, earnings and cash flows, as well as lower returns on shareholders’ equity and invested capital. Factors that may affect the availability of funding or cause an increase in our funding costs include global macro-economic crises, reduction of our credit rating, and other potential market disruptions.

We have significant exposure to LIBOR and other floating interest rates; increases in interest rates will increase our financing costs and may have adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations.

We are exposed to the risk of interest rate variations, principally in relation to the U.S. dollar London Interbank Offer Rate (“LIBOR”). Many of our operating and financial leases are denominated in U.S. dollars and bear interest at a floating rate. 36.9% of our outstanding consolidated debt as of December 31, 2016 bears interest at a floating rate after giving effect to interest rate hedging agreements. Volatility in LIBOR or other reference rates could increase our periodic interest and lease payments and have an adverse effect on our total financing costs. We may be unable to adequately adjust our prices to offset any increased financing costs, which would have an adverse effect on our revenues and our results of operations.

Increases in insurance costs and/or significant reductions in coverage could harm our financial condition and results of operations.

Major events affecting the aviation insurance industry (such as terrorist attacks, hijackings or airline crashes) may result in significant increases of airlines’ insurance premiums or in significant decreases of insurance coverage, as occurred after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. Increases in insurance costs and/or significant reductions in coverage could harm our financial condition and results of operations and increases the risk that we experience uncovered losses.

Problems with air traffic control systems or other technical failures could interrupt our operations and have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our operations, including our ability to deliver customer service, are dependent on the effective operation of our equipment, including our aircraft, maintenance systems and reservation systems. Our operations are also dependent on the effective operation of domestic and international air traffic control systems and the air traffic control infrastructure by the corresponding authorities in the markets in which we operate. Equipment failures, personnel shortages, air traffic control problems and other factors that could interrupt operations could adversely affect our operations and financial results as well as our reputation.

We depend on a limited number of suppliers for certain aircraft and engine parts. 

We depend on a limited number of suppliers for aircraft, aircraft engines and many aircraft and engine parts. As a result, we are vulnerable to any problems associated with the supply of those aircraft, parts and engines, including design defects, mechanical problems, contractual performance by the suppliers, or adverse perception by the public that would result in customer avoidance or in actions by the aviation authorities resulting in an inability to operate our aircraft.

Our business relies extensively on third-party service providers. Failure of these parties to perform as expected, or interruptions in our relationships with these providers or their provision of services to us, could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.

We have engaged a significant number of third-party service providers to perform a large number of functions that are integral to our business, including regional operations, operation of customer service call centers, distribution and sale of airline seat inventory, provision of information technology infrastructure and services, provision of aircraft maintenance and repairs, catering, ground services, and provision of various utilities and performance of aircraft fueling operations, among other vital functions and services. We do not directly control these third-party service providers, although we do enter into agreements with many of them that define expected service performance. Any of these third-party service providers, however, may materially fail to meet their service performance commitments, may suffer disruptions to their systems that could impact their services, or the agreements with such providers may be terminated. For example, flight reservations booked by customers and/or travel agencies via third-party GDSs (Global Distribution Systems) may be adversely affected by disruptions in our business relationships with GDS operators. Such disruptions, including a failure to agree upon acceptable contract terms when contracts expire or otherwise become subject to renegotiation, may cause the carriers’ flight information to be limited or unavailable for display, significantly increase fees for both us and GDS users, and impair our relationships with customers and travel agencies. The failure of any of our third-party service providers to adequately perform their service obligations, or other interruptions of services, may reduce our revenues and increase our expenses or prevent us from operating our flights and providing other services to our customers. In addition, our business, financial performance and reputation could be materially harmed if our customers believe that our services are unreliable or unsatisfactory.

Disruptions or security breaches of our information technology infrastructure or systems could interfere with our operations, compromise passenger or employee information, and expose us to liability, possibly causing our business and reputation to suffer.

A serious internal technology error or failure impacting systems hosted internally at our data centers or externally at third-party locations, or large-scale interruption in technology infrastructure we depend on, such as power, telecommunications or the internet, may disrupt our technology network with potential impact on our operations. Our technology systems and related data may also be vulnerable to a variety of sources of interruption, including natural disasters, terrorist attacks, telecommunications failures, computer viruses, hackers and other security issues. While we have in place, and continue to invest in, technology security initiatives and disaster recovery plans, these measures may not be adequate or implemented properly so as to prevent a business disruption and its adverse financial and reputational consequences to our business.

In addition, as a part of our ordinary business operations, we collect and store sensitive data, including personal information of our passengers and employees and information of our business partners. The secure operation of the networks and systems on which this type of information is stored, processed and maintained is critical to our business operations and strategy. Unauthorized parties may attempt to gain access to our systems or information through fraud or deception. Hardware or software we develop or acquire may contain defects that could unexpectedly compromise information security. The compromise of our technology systems resulting in the loss, disclosure, misappropriation of, or access to, customers’, employees’ or business partners’ information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or regulatory penalties under laws protecting the privacy of personal information, disruption to our operations and damage to our reputation, any or all of which could adversely affect our business.

Increases in our labor costs, which constitute a substantial portion of our total operating expenses, could directly impact our earnings.

Labor costs constitute a significant percentage of our total operating expenses (21.8% in 2016) and at times in our operating history we have experienced pressure to increase wages and benefits for our employees. A significant increase in our labor costs could result in a material reduction in our earnings.

Our business may experience adverse consequences if we are unable to reach satisfactory collective bargaining agreements with our unionized employees.

As of December 31, 2016, approximately 72.9% of our employees, including administrative personnel, cabin crew, flight attendants, pilots and maintenance technicians are members of unions and have contracts and collective bargaining agreements which expire on a regular basis. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by a failure to reach agreement with any labor union representing such employees or by an agreement with a labor union that contains terms that are not in line with our expectations or that prevent us from competing effectively with other airlines.

Collective action by employees could cause operating disruptions and adversely impact our business.

Certain employee groups such as pilots, flight attendants, mechanics and our airport personnel have highly specialized skills. As a consequence, actions by these groups, such as strikes, walk-outs or stoppages, could severely disrupt our operations and adversely impact our operating and financial performance, as well as our image.

We may experience difficulty finding, training and retaining employees.

Our business is labor intensive. We employ a large number of pilots, flight attendants, maintenance technicians and other operating and administrative personnel. The airline industry has, from time to time, experienced a shortage of qualified personnel, especially pilots and maintenance technicians. In addition, as is common with most of our competitors, we may, from time to time, face considerable turnover of our employees. Should the turnover of employees, particularly pilots and maintenance technicians, sharply increase, our training costs will be significantly higher. A failure to recruit, train and retain qualified employees at a reasonable cost could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Airline Industry and the Countries in Which We Operate

 

Our performance is heavily dependent on economic conditions in the countries in which we do business. Negative economic conditions in those countries could adversely impact our business and results of operations and cause the market price of our common shares and ADSs to decrease.

Passenger and cargo demand is heavily cyclical and highly dependent on global and local economic growth, economic expectations and foreign exchange rate variations, among other things. In the past, our business has been adversely affected by global economic recessionary conditions, weak economic growth in Chile, recession in Brazil and Argentina and poor economic performance in certain emerging market countries in which we operate. The occurrence of similar events in the future could adversely affect our business. We plan to continue to expand our operations based in Latin America and our performance will, therefore, continue to depend heavily on economic conditions in the region.

Any of the following factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations in the countries in which we operate:

  • changes in economic or other governmental policies;
  • weak economic performance, including, but not limited to, low economic growth, low consumption and/or investment rates, and increased inflation rates; or
  • other political or economic developments over which we have no control.

No assurance can be given that capacity reductions or other steps we may take in response to weakened demand will be adequate to offset any future reduction in our cargo and/or air travel demand in Brazil or in other markets in which we operate. Sustained weakened demand may adversely impact our revenues, results of operations or financial condition.

We are exposed to increases in landing fees and other airport service charges that could adversely affect our margin and competitive position.

Airlines must pay fees to airport operators for the use of airport facilities. Passenger taxes and airport charges have increased substantially in recent years. We cannot assure you that the airports in which we operate will not increase or maintain high passenger taxes and service charges in the future. Any substantial increase in airport charges could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. In addition, any increase in passenger taxes could negatively impact demand for air travel and affect our results.

Our business is highly regulated and changes in the regulatory environment in which we operate may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Our business is highly regulated and depends substantially upon the regulatory environment in the countries in which we operate or intend to operate. For example, price controls on fares may limit our ability to effectively apply customer segmentation profit maximization techniques (“passenger revenue management”) and adjust prices to reflect cost pressures. High levels of government regulation may limit the scope of our operations and our growth plans. The possible failure of aviation authorities to maintain the required governmental authorizations or our failure to comply with applicable regulations, may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Losses and liabilities in the event of an accident involving one or more of our aircraft could materially affect our business.

We are exposed to potential catastrophic losses in the event of an aircraft accident, terrorist incident or any other similar event. There can be no assurance that, as a result of an aircraft accident or significant incident:

  • we will not need to increase our insurance coverage;
  • our insurance premiums will not increase significantly;
  • our insurance coverage will fully cover all of our liability; or
  • we will not be forced to bear substantial losses.

Substantial claims resulting from an accident or significant incident in excess of our related insurance coverage could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, any aircraft accident, even if fully insured, could cause the negative public perception that our aircraft are less safe or reliable than those operated by other airlines, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Insurance premiums may also increase due to an accident or incident affecting one of our alliance partners or other airlines.

High levels of competition in the airline industry may adversely affect our level of operations.

Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected by high levels of competition within the industry, particularly the entrance of new competitors into the markets in which we operate. Airlines compete primarily over fare levels, frequency and dependability of service, brand recognition, passenger amenities (such as frequent flyer programs) and the availability and convenience of other passenger or cargo services. New and existing airlines (and companies providing ground cargo or passenger transportation) could enter our markets and compete with us on any of these bases, including by offering lower prices, more attractive services or increasing their route offerings in an effort to gain greater market share.

Some of our competitors may receive external support, which could adversely impact our competitive position.

Some of our competitors may receive support from external sources, such as their national governments, which may be unavailable to us. Support may include, among others, subsidies, financial aid or tax waivers. This support could place us at a competitive disadvantage and adversely affect our operations and financial performance.

Our operations are subject to local, national and international environmental regulations; costs of compliance with applicable regulations, or the consequences of noncompliance, could adversely affect our results, our business or our reputation.

Our operations are covered by environmental regulations at local, national and international levels. These regulations cover, among other things, emissions to the atmosphere, disposal of solid waste and aqueous effluents, aircraft noise and other activities incident to our business. Future operations and financial results may vary as a result of such regulations. Compliance with these regulations and new or existing regulations that may be applicable to us in the future could increase our cost base and adversely affect our operations and financial results. In addition, failure to comply with these regulations could adversely affect us in a variety of ways, including adverse effects on our reputation.

In 2016, the ICAO adopted a resolution creating the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), providing a framework for a global market-based measure to stabilize carbon dioxide (“CO2”) emissions in international civil aviation (i.e., civil aviation flights that depart in one country and arrive in a different country). The CORSIA will be implemented in phases, starting with the participation of ICAO member states on a voluntary basis during a pilot phase (from 2021 through 2023), followed by a first phase (from 2024 through 2026) and a second phase (from 2027). Currently, CORSIA focuses on defining standards for monitoring, reporting and verification of emissions from air operators, as well as on defining steps to offset CO2 emissions after 2020. To the extent most of the countries in which we operate continue to be ICAO member states, in the future we may be affected by regulations adopted pursuant to the CORSIA framework.

The proliferation of national regulations and taxes on CO2 emissions in the countries that we have domestic operations, including recent enviromental regulations that the airline industry is facing in Colombia, may also affect our costs of operations and our margins.

Our business may be adversely affected by a downturn in the airline industry caused by exogenous events that affect travel behavior or increase costs, such as outbreak of disease, weather conditions and natural disasters, war or terrorist attacks.

Demand for air transportation may be adversely impacted by exogenous events, such as adverse weather conditions and natural disasters, epidemics (such as Ebola and Zika), terrorist attacks, war or political and social instability. Situations such as these in one or more of the markets in which we operate could have a material impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, these types of situations could have a prolonged effect on air transportation demand and on certain cost items.

Revenues for airlines depend on the number of passengers carried, the fare paid by each passenger and service factors, such as the timeliness of flight departures and arrivals. During periods of fog, ice, low temperatures, storms or other adverse weather conditions, some or all of our flights may be cancelled or significantly delayed, reducing our revenues. In addition, fuel prices and supplies, which constitute a significant cost for us, may increase as a result of any future terrorist attacks, a general increase in hostilities or a reduction in output of fuel, voluntary or otherwise, by oil-producing countries. Such increases may result in both higher airline ticket prices and decreased demand for air travel generally, which could have an adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations.

We are subject to risks related to litigation and administrative proceedings that could adversely affect our business and financial performance in the event of an unfavorable ruling.

The nature of our business exposes us to litigation relating to labor, insurance and safety matters, regulatory, tax and administrative proceedings, governmental investigations, tort claims and contract disputes. Litigation is inherently costly and unpredictable, making it difficult to accurately estimate the outcome among other matters. Currently, as in the past, we are subject to proceedings or investigations of actual or potential litigation. Although we establish provisions as we deem necessary, the amounts that we reserve could vary significantly from any amounts we actually pay due to the inherent uncertainties in the estimation process. We cannot assure you that these or other legal proceedings will not materially affect our business.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and antitrust laws and regulations in Chile, the United States and in the various countries we operate. Violations of any such laws or regulations could have a material adverse impact on our reputation and results of operations and financial condition.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, antitrust and other international laws and regulations and are required to comply with the applicable laws and regulations of Chile, the United States and certain other jurisdictions where we operate. In addition, we are subject to economic sanctions regulations that restrict our dealings with certain sanctioned countries, individuals and entities. There can be no assurance that our internal policies and procedures will be sufficient to prevent or detect all inappropriate practices, fraud or violations of law by our affiliates, employees, directors, officers, partners, agents and service providers or that any such persons will not take actions in violation of our policies and procedures. Any violations by us of anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws or sanctions regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.

The Brazilian government has exercised, and may continue to exercise, significant influence over the Brazilian economy, which may have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Brazilian economy has been characterized by the significant involvement of the Brazilian government, which often changes monetary, credit, fiscal and other policies to influence Brazil’s economy. The Brazilian government’s actions to control inflation and implement other policies have involved wage and price controls, depreciation of the real, controls over remittance of funds abroad, intervention by the Central Bank to affect base interest rates and other measures. We have no control over, and cannot predict what measures or policies the Brazilian government may take in the future.

 

Risks Related to our Common Shares and ADSs

 

Our major shareholders may have interests that differ from those of our other shareholders.

One of our major shareholder groups, the Cueto Group (the “LATAM Controlling Shareholders”),which as of January 31, 2017, beneficially owned 28.27% of our common shares, is entitled to elect three of the nine members of our board of directors and is in a position to direct our management. In addition, the LATAM Controlling Shareholders have entered into a shareholders agreement with the Amaro Group, which as of January 31, 2017, held a 3.02% of LATAM shares through TEP Chile, in addition to the indirect stake they have through the 21.88% interest in Costa Verde Aeronáutica S.A., the main legal vehicle through which the Cueto Group holds LATAM shares, pursuant to which these two major shareholder groups have agreed to vote together to elect individuals to our board of directors in accordance with their direct and indirect shareholder interest in LATAM.  Pursuant to a shareholders’ agreement, the LATAM Controlling Shareholders and the Amaro Group have also agreed to use their good faith efforts to reach an agreement and act jointly on all actions to be taken by our board of directors or shareholders meeting, and if unable to reach to such agreement, to follow the proposal made by our board of directors.  Decisions by the Company that require supermajority votes under Chilean law are also subject to voting arrangements by the LATAM Controlling Shareholders and theAmaro Group. In addition, another major shareholder, Qatar Airways Investments (UK) Ltd., which as of January 31, 2017, held 10.03%([1]) of paid and subscribed shares, is entitled to appoint one individual to our board of directors. The interests of our major shareholders may differ from those of our other shareholders.  See “Item 7. Controlling Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—A. Major Shareholders.”

Under the terms of the deposit agreement governing the ADSs, if holders of ADSs do not provide JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A., in its capacity as depositary for the ADSs, with timely instructions on the voting of the common shares underlying their ADRs, the depositary will be deemed to have been instructed to give a person designated by the board of directors the discretionary right to vote those common shares. The person designated by the board of directors to exercise this discretionary voting right may have interests that are aligned with our controlling shareholders, which may differ from those of our other shareholders. Historically, our board of directors has designated its chairman, currently Mauricio Amaro, to serve in this role.

Trading of our ADSs and common shares in the securities markets is limited and could experience further illiquidity and price volatility.

Our common shares are listed on the various Chilean stock exchanges. Chilean securities markets are substantially smaller, less liquid and more volatile than major securities markets in the United States. In addition, Chilean securities markets may be materially affected by developments in other emerging markets, particularly other countries in Latin America. Accordingly, although you are entitled to withdraw the common shares underlying the ADSs from the depositary at any time, your ability to sell the common shares underlying ADSs in the amount and at the price and time of your choice may be substantially limited. This limited trading market may also increase the price volatility of the ADSs or the common shares underlying the ADSs.

Holders of ADRs may be adversely affected by currency devaluations and foreign exchange fluctuations.

If the Chilean peso exchange rate falls relative to the U.S. dollar, the value of the ADSs and any distributions made thereon from the depositary could be adversely affected. Cash distributions made in respect of the ADSs are received by the depositary (represented by the custodian bank in Chile) in pesos, converted by the custodian bank into U.S. dollars at the then-prevailing exchange rate and distributed by the depositary to the holders of the ADRs evidencing those ADSs. In addition, the depositary will incur foreign currency conversion costs (to be borne by the holders of the ADRs) in connection with the foreign currency conversion and subsequent distribution of dividends or other payments with respect to the ADSs.

Future changes in Chilean foreign investment controls and withholding taxes could negatively affect non-Chilean residents that invest in our shares.

Equity investments in Chile by non-Chilean residents have been subject in the past to various exchange control regulations that govern investment repatriation and earnings thereon. Although not currently in effect, regulations of the Central Bank of Chile have in the past required, and could again require, foreign investors acquiring securities in the secondary market in Chile to maintain a cash reserve or to pay a fee upon conversion of foreign currency to purchase such securities. Furthermore, future changes in withholding taxes could negatively affect non-Chilean residents that invest in our shares.

We cannot assure you that additional Chilean restrictions applicable to the holders of ADRs, the disposition of the common shares underlying ADSs or the repatriation of the proceeds from an acquisition, a disposition or a dividend payment, will not be imposed or required in the future, nor could we make an assessment as to the duration or impact, were any such restrictions to be imposed or required. For further information, see “Item 10. Additional Information—D. Exchange Controls—Foreign Investment and Exchange Controls in Chile.”

Our ADS holders may not be able to exercise preemptive rights in certain circumstances.

The Chilean Corporation Law provides that preemptive rights shall be granted to all shareholders whenever a company issues new shares for cash, giving such holders the right to purchase a sufficient number of shares to maintain their existing ownership percentage. We will not be able to offer shares to holders of ADSs and shareholders located in the United States pursuant to the preemptive rights granted to shareholders in connection with any future issuance of shares unless a registration statement under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (the “Securities Act”), is effective with respect to such rights and shares, or an exemption from the registration requirements of the Securities Act is available. At the time of any rights offering, we will evaluate the potential costs and liabilities associated with any such registration statement in light of any indirect benefit to us of enabling U.S. holders of ADRs evidencing ADSs and shareholders located in the United States to exercise preemptive rights, as well as any other factors that may be considered appropriate at that time, and we will then make a decision as to whether we will file a registration statement. We cannot assure you that we will decide to file a registration statement or that such rights will be available to ADS holders and shareholders located in the United States.

We are not required to disclose as much information to investors as a U.S. issuer is required to disclose and, as a result, you may receive less information about us than you would receive from a comparable U.S. company.

The corporate disclosure requirements that apply to us may not be equivalent to the disclosure requirements that apply to a U.S. company and, as a result, you may receive less information about us than you would receive from a comparable U.S. company. We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. The disclosure requirements applicable to foreign issuers under the Exchange Act are more limited than the disclosure requirements applicable to U.S. issuers. Publicly available information about issuers of securities listed on Chilean stock exchanges also provides less detail in certain respects than the information regularly published by listed companies in the United States or in certain other countries. Furthermore, there is a lower level of regulation of the Chilean securities market and of the activities of investors in such markets as compared with the level of regulation of the securities markets in the United States and in certain other developed countries.

([1]) Qatar owns 9.999999918% of total issued shares of LATAM.